An Integral Approach to management and human development based on the spiritual vision of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother with an emphasis on its application to various domains of knowledge and life.
[Published in FDI, http://fdi.sriaurobindosociety.org.in/cms/index.php, Sep 2010]
(The capacity for concentration is an important factor in enhancing the efficiency and productivity of individuals. There is at present a considerable mass of literature on concentration based mainly on the ancient disciplines of Indian Yoga. However there is not yet sufficient clarity on how to apply these principles and methods of concentration in the modern corporate environment. This article examines the problem of concentration in the corporate context and as a means for improving the performance of individuals. )
Whatever you may want to do in life, one thing is absolutely indispensable and at the basis of everything is the capacity of concentrating the attention.
The ability to concentrate and use your time well is everything if you want to succeed in business-or almost everywhere.
Former CEO of Chrysler
Key Perspectives: Principles of concentration; concentration in the corporate context; obstacles to concentration; enablers of concentration; concentration and inner growth.
Principles of Concentration
Concentration means the ability to focus all the attention and energy of the mind on a particular point and hold on to it as long as it is needed. We must note here that concentration does not mean we must always be tensely focused on something but to acquire and possess the ability to focus our energies at will and whenever it is needed.
Our so-called “normal” conditions of mind is a state of dispersion, diffusion and wastage of the light and power of our consciousness in a multitude of thoughts, feelings and objects, scattered helplessly in an uncontrolled medley of confusion and disorder. Such a mind is the most inefficient and unproductive. For Mind is also a form of energy like Matter. When this mental energy is scattered and diffused in uncontrolled and useless chattering it is at the lowest and at the most inefficient level of functioning. On the other hand when this mental energy is under control, free from useless, wasteful and disturbing thoughts, focused and concentrated at a point, it functions at its highest potential. Energy, physical or mental, when focused, enhances its penetrative power. An apt analogy from modern technology is the Laser beam. Laser is the electromagnetic energy of sunlight-which falls on earth in a diffused and scattered form, -focused into a coherent and concentrated beam, which can penetrate even steel. This applies equally to mental energy. The act of focusing the mind increases and multiplies the cognitive as well the penetrative power of its energy; it grows in light, clarity, insight, understanding and also in power, intensity, strength and force of effectuation.
In fact some form of concentration is there in all creative and productive activities. All great leaders of thought and action and all those who have attained higher levels of success or excellence in whatever field, business or politics, art, literature or religion, possess this capacity of concentration in an exceptional or above average measure. But the Science of Yoga believes that even an average man can develop and enhance his power of concentration by constant, systematic and methodical practice.
There is at present a considerable amount of literature on concentration and its methods of practice, most of them based on Patanjali’s Yoga-sutra or Buddhist meditational practices. But Patanjali’s and Buddhist methods of concentration are designed mainly for spiritual seekers aiming at more or less other-worldly aims. Most of these ancient methods of concentration aim at an inward meditative absorption in a world-shutting trance. But our present enquiry is how to induce and enhance concentration in our modern corporate life, pursuing worldly aims, made of average worldly men and women and in the actual day-to-day work-life of the organizational man. This requires creative adaptation of the basic principles and methods of the ancient meditation techniques to the modern work-environment.
Let us now examine this problem of concentration in the context of modern work-life. We have to identify clearly what are the factors, which enhance as well as prevent concentration, both individually and collectively, and think-out how to create an environment, which felicitates concentration.
Concentration in the corporate context
In most of us who are not Yogis, an absorbing interest, desire or ambition, drive for success or achievement, chasing a difficult goal or target, induces a certain amount of concentration. Conversely lack of interest in work or life or the urge for wealth, enjoyment, success or achievement, leads to boredom and monotony and a state of slack inertia, which is not conducive to concentration. So an organizational culture which makes a conscious effort to make the work-life interesting, exciting and challenging and tries to harness the motives, desires and ambitions of people in a healthy and creative way towards the progressive evolution of the individual and the organization is helpful and beneficial for achieving concentration. And this is happening to a certain extent in our modern corporate culture, especially in Business. This is perhaps the reason why business is the most efficient and productive among modern social organs.
But in our approach, the ideal we have to strive for is to acquire the ability to concentrate at will with or without the factors like interest or desire which we have mentioned earlier. To realise this ideal we have to understand what are the obstacles to concentration and also the positive factors which can strengthen our ability to concentrate. The practical problem is to eliminate or minimize the obstacles to concentration and cultivate the factors which strengthen it.
Obstacles to Concentration
The opposite of concentration is distraction and dispersion. Our human mind is by nature fickle and tends towards dispersion; it flits from one object to another and runs passionately towards all that is pleasing and attractive to it. There are two major domains of distraction: first are the distractions of the external environment and second are the internal distractions within the mind. All forms of strong, gross and provocative sensations are obstacles to concentration. So an external environment, which leads to soft, mild and refined sensations, is favourable not only to our emotional and aesthetic development but also for concentration. In our modern corporate environment physical attraction between sexes can become a major source of distraction. Here is an episode narrated in a well-known magazine.
‘The 21 year old secretary in a Pennsylvania insurance office was stunned to hear that a department head had complained about her short skirts. “Don’t you see that’s his problem”, she protested to her superior. “Not entirely”, her boss replied, “As a woman, you’re responsible for the signals you send. And when you wear revealing miniskirts, the message men get is “Look at me” ’
Here comes the importance of a dress code. But a better approach would be dress education or training in aesthetics, which will help the employees to dress beautifully without being provocative. Similarly, excessive gossiping and chatting can be a factor of considerable dispersion. These are some of the major external obstacles to concentration. Among internal factors, the first major source of disturbance is the compelling and uncontrollable flow and crowding of thoughts and feelings. The remedy to this problem is to cultivate calm and peace, which is indispensable for effective concentration. No real concentration is possible if the mind is like a crowded street in a city.
There are many disciplines in Yoga for bringing peace and calm to the mind. First method is to consciously slow down breathing. For Indian Yogis have found that there is an intimate connection between the rate of breathing and the flow of thought. Second method is to draw back and detach inwardly from the crowding flow of thoughts, take the position of a witness, and allow the disturbance to pass or exhaust itself. Third method is to visualize universal peace, calm and silence pervading all space and call it down into our consciousness by aspiration, invocation and prayer. So before commencing a work requiring concentration, it is always desirable to establish a certain amount of calm and peace in our body and mind; it very much helps in concentration.
The other set of obstacles to concentration are worry and anxiety and brooding over the past and future. Worry and anxiety may be due to personal problems or incompetence or the present corporate environment with its threatening deadlines and insecurity. Anxieties and worries created by personal problems or incompetence have to be handled by the individual employee himself, though the corporate management can lend a compassionate helping hand. But the anxieties created by the corporate environment are a difficult problem, which requires a more humane, sympathetic and serious attention from the corporate management than a helpless, or indifferent “can’t-help-it” shrugs. For a state of constant anxiety and uncertainty over the job is not conducive to concentration or well-being of the work-force. An individual company may not have the power to change the market-realities. But a conscious combined effort of industry or business associations, government and NGO’s can have a definite impact on minimizing the anxiety levels of the work-force created by the down-sizing culture.
The other important obstacle to concentration is the inordinate longing for future result, reward or benefit. Constant drifting of the mind to past or the future, for whatever reason, due to worry anxiety or the desire or ambition for the future reward dilutes and scatters the mental energy. The power of concentration reaches its peak only when all the attention and energies of our consciousness is focused on the present and the now. This is a great discipline for the spiritual development of the individual. However by minimizing worry and anxiety and the drift towards past and future, it can also enhance our capacity for concentration.
Enablers of Concentration
We have discussed so far some of the major obstacles to concentration and the remedies. Let us now look at the positive factors which can reinforce concentration. We have already indicated some of them like focus on the present, calm and peace. The other important factors are persistent will, vigilant mind and constant practice. We must keep in mind that there is no shortcut or quick-fix remedies for concentration. We have to work against the natural urge of the mind towards dispersion and impress upon it the opposite tendency of concentrated focus, through a patient, persistent and undespondent will. The ordinary unfocussed human mind is described in the ancient Indian Yogic literature in the image of a monkey who is at once blind, drunk and strung by a scorpion! This image gives some idea of the difficulty involved in dealing with our mind.
Initially, it could be extremely tiring to impose concentration on the mind which is not habituated to it. The mind may revolt violently and react with thoughts and feelings like “O it is hopeless”, “no use trying”, and “not worth the labour”. But these suggestions have to be firmly rejected by the will and the process of concentration has to be repeated again and again, patiently, without yielding to despondency. The steps of the process are simple in paper but difficult to put into practice. The first step is to establish a minimum amount of calm in the mind. Next step is to gather and bring back the vagabonding mind to the focal point of concentration which may be an object, thought, or an activity. Third step is to hold on to it as long as possible, keeping the distracting thoughts away with a vigilant mind and a firm will. Here comes the importance of an alert and vigilant mind. A sleepy and drowsy condition is a great obstacle to concentration. And sometimes a drowsy absorption of the mind in an object is mistaken for concentration. For effective concentration, both the will and awareness in the mind has to be alert, watchful and vigilant to ward off the unwanted intruders and keep the mind focused.
Practice of concentration during work can be supplemented by other and more specialized practices at home or during unoccupied moments like for example while commuting to office or home, in a bus or train. There are innumerable methods and techniques, which we can pick up from any good book on the subject, and there are many such books. (1) For example gazing steadily over a candle flame is a well-known method in the Indian Yogic tradition. The other method is to inwardly visualize an object or image and concentrate on it. The image can be religious or spiritual symbol like the form of a deity or a non-religious image like a geometric figure. Here, the practitioner can begin with a simple figure like a square or a circle, slowly and gradually progresses towards more complex figures like a hexagon or a pentagon. The object of concentration cannot be the same for all. It has to be chosen taking into consideration the nature, temperament, occupation and the mental or emotional affinities of the individual. Initially the object of concentration has to be something pleasing and attractive to the mind and heart of the practitioner.
Concentration and Inner Growth
We have discussed so far how to harness the power of concentration for enhancing productivity. However when this power of concentration is turned inwards, for focusing all our creative energies for realizing a mental, moral or spiritual ideal, it becomes a potent tool for accelerating our inner growth. So we request our readers use the power of concentration not exclusively for enhancing productivity but predominantly for inner growth with productivity as the outer result. When this power or capacity is used with this higher aims it can perhaps lead to even higher or more qualitatively superior productivity because it will bring the greater creative energies of our inner being to work. In this way while becoming a better professional we will also grow inwardly and become better human beings.